Published on:
September 29, 2023
Shaik Musrath

CBDT’s New Angel Tax Rules: Valuation Methods & Safe Harbor

In a significant move aimed at fostering entrepreneurship and boosting investments in startups, the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has introduced new rules related to the taxation of angel investments. Angel tax has been a longstanding concern for startups and angel investors alike. However, the recent changes aim to provide clarity and relief in this regard. In this blog, we will delve into the CBDT's new angel tax rules, focusing on valuation methods and the introduction of the safe harbor mechanism.

What is Angel Tax

Angel tax, also known as the Section 56(2)(viib) tax, has been a contentious issue for startups in India. Under the previous provisions, if a startup raised capital at a valuation higher than its fair market value, the excess amount was considered taxable income. This posed a significant challenge for startups, as they often attracted angel investments at a premium valuation due to their growth potential.

What are the Valuation Methods

Under the new rules introduced by the CBDT, startups will have the option to choose one of the following valuation methods to determine their fair market value:

Net Asset Value (NAV) Method

Startups can now use the NAV method for valuing their shares. This method takes into account the book value of assets and liabilities, adjusting for any overvaluation or undervaluation.

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method 

The DCF method, which is commonly used for valuing businesses, will now be accepted for startups as well. It involves estimating the present value of future cash flows generated by the business.

Price-Earnings (P/E) Ratio Method

This method allows startups to determine their fair market value by considering the P/E ratio of a comparable company listed on the stock exchange.

Merchant Banker's Valuation

Startups can also opt for a valuation by a merchant banker registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

What is Safe Harbor Mechanism

One of the most notable introductions in the new rules is the safe harbor mechanism. This mechanism provides relief to startups by offering immunity from angel tax scrutiny if they meet certain criteria. To qualify for the safe harbor, a startup must:

Have a total investment, including funding from angel investors, not exceeding ₹25 crores.

Have a turnover not exceeding ₹50 crores.

Be involved in an eligible business, such as technology-driven innovation, intellectual property, or small and medium enterprises (SMEs).


The CBDT's new angel tax rules represent a positive step towards simplifying the taxation process for startups and angel investors. By allowing multiple valuation methods and introducing the safe harbor mechanism, the government aims to strike a balance between promoting entrepreneurship and preventing misuse of the system.

Startups can now choose a valuation method that best reflects their true worth and seek immunity from angel tax scrutiny if they meet the specified criteria. These changes are expected to boost investor confidence, encourage angel investments in startups, and provide much-needed relief to the burgeoning startup ecosystem in India.

However, it's essential for startups to ensure that they adhere to the criteria outlined under the safe harbor mechanism and maintain accurate records of their financial transactions. Consulting with financial experts and tax advisors can also help navigate these new rules effectively. With these reforms, India's startup landscape looks poised for further growth and innovation.


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Updated on:
September 29, 2023