August 1, 2023

Personal Guarantors under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 Corporate Law


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC) has revolutionized the corporate insolvency resolution process in India. While the focus of the IBC is primarily on corporate debtors, it also recognizes the importance of personal guarantors in the debt recovery process. Personal guarantors play a crucial role in securing loans and credit facilities provided to corporate entities. In this article, we will explore the legal status and implications of personal guarantors under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 in the context of corporate law.

Understanding Personal Guarantors

A personal guarantor is an individual who provides a guarantee for the repayment of a loan or credit facility taken by a corporate debtor. Personal guarantors undertake the responsibility of fulfilling the financial obligations of the corporate entity in case of default. They act as a secondary source of repayment for the lender and provide an additional layer of security.

Applicability of IBC to Personal Guarantors

The IBC was amended in 2019 to include provisions for the insolvency resolution process of personal guarantors. Under Section 2(e) of the IBC, the term "personal guarantor" has been defined as an individual who is the surety in a contract of guarantee to a corporate debtor.

Insolvency Proceedings against Personal Guarantors

The IBC provides for insolvency proceedings against personal guarantors in the same manner as corporate debtors. The creditor of the corporate debtor can initiate insolvency proceedings against the personal guarantor if there is a default in repayment. The proceedings are conducted before the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT).

Rights and Obligations of Personal Guarantors

Personal guarantors, like corporate debtors, have certain rights and obligations under the IBC. Some key points to consider are:

1. Right to Contest: Personal guarantors have the right to contest the insolvency proceedings initiated against them. They can present their case, provide evidence of repayment, or dispute the default alleged by the creditor.

2. Obligation to Disclose: Personal guarantors have an obligation to disclose their assets, liabilities, and financial position during the insolvency process. They must provide accurate and complete information to facilitate the resolution process.

3. Liability for Repayment: Personal guarantors are liable to repay the outstanding debt in case of default by the corporate debtor. If the insolvency proceedings result in a resolution plan or liquidation, the personal guarantor's assets may be utilized for repayment.

4. Moratorium: Similar to corporate debtors, personal guarantors also enjoy the benefit of a moratorium period during the insolvency proceedings. This period provides them with protection against any recovery actions by the creditors.

Impact on Credit Rating and Future Borrowings

One significant consequence of insolvency proceedings against personal guarantors is the potential impact on their credit rating and future borrowing capacity. The insolvency process and the subsequent outcome can have long-term repercussions on the personal guarantor's financial standing and creditworthiness.


The inclusion of personal guarantors within the ambit of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 has provided a comprehensive framework for dealing with their insolvency proceedings. It recognizes the importance of personal guarantors in securing credit for corporate debtors and aims to strike a balance between creditor rights and the interests of personal guarantors. Understanding the legal status and implications of personal guarantors under the IBC is crucial for individuals involved in corporate lending and credit transactions.


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