August 3, 2023

51st GST council meet: Tax of 28% to be levied on online gaming

Under the new framework, online gaming will be subject to a 28% GST on the full face value of bets placed on online gaming in India. This will be effective from October 1st.

On August 2, 2023, a significant meeting of the GST Council took place through video conferencing in New Delhi. Led by Nirmala Sitharaman, the Union Finance Minister, the council, along with Revenue Secretary Sanjay Malhotra, Union Minister of State for Finance Pankaj Chaudary, and other state ministers, deliberated on several crucial aspects of the taxation landscape. The meeting revolved around the taxation of online gaming and marked a milestone in the way the government perceives and regulates this rapidly growing industry.

The New Tax Framework

The GST Council, India's highest decision-making body for indirect taxation, convened to discuss amendments in the CGST Act 2017 and IGST Act 2017, focusing on the taxation of supplies in casinos, horse racing, and online gaming. The council recommended several changes to provide clarity and standardization in taxing these sectors.

Under the new framework, online gaming will be subject to a 28% GST on the full face value of bets placed. The valuation of supply for online gaming and actionable claims in casinos will be based on the amount paid or payable to the supplier by or on behalf of the player, excluding the amount from winnings of previous games or bets. This approach aims to streamline taxation while ensuring fairness in the gaming industry.

Key Highlights

No Change for 28% GST on Online Gaming, Casinos, Horse Racing

The council decided to maintain the existing 28% GST rate on online gaming, casinos, and horse racing. This decision is in line with the previous tax structure and highlights the government's approach to sustaining revenue generation from these sectors.

Amendments in CGST and SGST Act regarding online gaming taxes

To address the specific tax implications of online gaming, the council approved amendments in the Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) and State Goods and Services Tax (SGST) Acts. These amendments aim to establish a comprehensive framework for taxation within the online gaming industry.

Council to review GST implementation of online gaming after its 6 months implementation period

Recognizing the evolving nature of the online gaming industry, the council agreed to review the GST implementation of online gaming after a six-month trial period. This approach allows for a better understanding of the industry's dynamics and potential challenges before finalizing the taxation framework.

Clear definition of actionable claims

The council approved a clear definition of actionable claims to provide clarity in tax treatment for transactions involving online gaming and related activities. This move is expected to reduce ambiguity and promote compliance among industry players.

Inclusion of Online Money Gaming in the definition of Online Gaming

A significant development in the meeting was the inclusion of Online Money Gaming in the definition of Online Gaming. This decision highlights the council's understanding of the interplay between gaming and monetary transactions within the digital realm.

Definition of online money gaming includes games based on both skill & chance

To further streamline the classification of games within the online money gaming category, the council approved a definition that encompasses games based on both skill and chance. This acknowledges the diverse nature of games and ensures appropriate taxation based on the elements of skill and luck involved.

Definition of online gaming as those ‘offered on the internet or e-network, including online money gaming’

A crucial decision made during the meeting was the definition of online gaming as any game "offered on the internet or e-network, including online money gaming." This inclusive definition ensures that all gaming activities conducted through digital platforms fall under the purview of GST regulations.

Insertion of the definition of ‘virtual digital asset’ in GST law as defined in IT Act

In a progressive step towards regulating digital assets in the gaming industry, the council approved the insertion of the definition of 'virtual digital asset' in the GST law, as previously defined in the Information Technology (IT) Act. This move aims to address virtual in-game items and currencies, thus ensuring a comprehensive taxation framework.

Bringing online money gaming supplied by entities located outside taxable territory under IGST ambit

To prevent tax evasion and to ensure equitable taxation for both domestic and international entities involved in online money gaming, the council decided to bring such supplies from foreign entities under the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) ambit.

Proposal to block all online gaming apps/platforms not complying with tax rules

In a bid to enforce tax compliance, the council approved a proposal to block all online gaming apps and platforms that do not adhere to the prescribed tax rules. This measure serves as a strong deterrent against non-compliant operators.

Offshore Gaming companies' registration and liability to action under the IT Act if not complied with provisions

To maintain regulatory oversight on offshore gaming companies operating in India, the council mandated their registration and imposed liability under the IT Act if they fail to comply with the provisions laid out in the GST framework.

Council to differentiate Online gaming and online money gaming

Recognizing the nuances between online gaming and online money gaming, the council decided to create clear distinctions between the two categories. This differentiation will likely lead to more targeted and appropriate taxation measures.

Notifications will be provided on 'Place of supply' if required

Finally, the council agreed to issue notifications on 'Place of supply' for online gaming and related services if deemed necessary. This step ensures that the appropriate jurisdiction receives tax revenues, especially in cross-border transactions.

Controversies and Diverse Opinions

The implementation of the 28% GST on online gaming has not been without contention. Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman revealed that Delhi's finance minister opposed the tax, while states like Goa and Sikkim sought taxation on GGR rather than the face value. This indicates a divergence in views among different states, each with their unique gaming industries and revenue models.

On one hand, states such as Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh supported the decision to implement the 28% GST, advocating for its prompt execution. On the other hand, industry representatives like the Federation of Indian Fantasy Sports (FIFS) and the E- Gaming Federation of India (EGF) expressed concern over the hefty tax burden imposed by the new framework. They argued that the 350% increase in GST would hinder growth and innovation in the Indian online gaming sector.

Challenges for the Gaming Industry

The online gaming industry in India has been witnessing exponential growth in recent years, fueled by increased internet penetration and smartphone adoption. The industry's potential for employment generation and revenue generation cannot be understated. However, the new tax framework presents several challenges for gaming companies to navigate.

The burden of a 28% GST on the face value of bets may impact gaming operators' profitability and increase the cost of participation for players. Additionally, the contrasting views of different states regarding taxation create ambiguity and may require further negotiation and resolution.


In conclusion, the 51st GST Council meeting brought forth transformative decisions that will reshape the landscape of the online gaming industry in India. By providing clear definitions, differentiated tax treatment, and measures to enforce compliance, the council has set the stage for a more organized, transparent, and sustainable future for this booming sector. As the new tax framework comes into effect from October 1, 2023, gaming companies will need to adapt to the changes and navigate the evolving regulatory landscape.


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