May 24, 2023
Durga Prasad

LIBOR vs SOFR: What You Need to Know About Floating Rate Loans

When it comes to floating rate loans, it's essential to understand the benchmark rates that determine the interest rates on these loans. In recent years, there has been a significant development in the world of benchmark rates. The London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which has long been a widely used benchmark, is being replaced by the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) in many financial markets. In this article, we will explore what LIBOR and SOFR are, how they are calculated, and the impact of this transition on borrowers with floating rate loans.

What is LIBOR?

LIBOR stands for the London Interbank Offered Rate. It is an interest rate that reflects the average rate at which major banks in London are willing to lend to each other in the international interbank market for short-term loans. LIBOR serves as a reference rate for various financial instruments, including loans, mortgages, derivatives, and bonds. However, due to concerns about manipulation and the need for a more reliable benchmark, LIBOR is being phased out.

How is LIBOR calculated?

LIBOR is calculated based on submissions from a panel of major global banks. These banks provide their rates at which they could borrow funds from other banks for various currencies and different maturities. The highest and lowest submissions are excluded, and the remaining rates are averaged to determine the LIBOR rate for each currency and maturity. However, the methodology and credibility of LIBOR have faced scrutiny in recent years.

Why the need for an alternative to LIBOR?

The primary reason for introducing an alternative to LIBOR is the concerns surrounding its calculation methodology and potential manipulation. Several major banks were fined for their involvement in manipulating LIBOR rates, leading to calls for reform and the development of alternative benchmark rates like SOFR. The underlying market that determines LIBOR has also experienced a decline in transaction volume, impacting its reliability.

What is SOFR?

SOFR, which stands for Secured Overnight Financing Rate, is an alternative benchmark rate designed to address the limitations of LIBOR. Unlike LIBOR, which is based on banks' submissions, SOFR is calculated based on actual transactions in the U.S. Treasury repurchase agreement (repo) market. It reflects the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities.

How is SOFR calculated?

SOFR is determined by collecting transactional data from various participants in the repo market, including banks and financial institutions. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York calculates a volume-weighted average of the overnight repo rates, which provides a robust and representative rate. SOFR is published on a daily basis and is considered a risk-free rate due to its collateralization by U.S. Treasury securities.

Transition from LIBOR to SOFR

As the financial industry moves away from LIBOR, SOFR is emerging as the preferred alternative benchmark rate. The Alternative Reference Rate Committee (ARRC), established by the Federal Reserve Board and the New York Fed, has recommended SOFR for various financial markets. While other countries are also exploring their own benchmark rates, SOFR is expected to become the primary benchmark rate for a wide range of financial contracts and instruments in the United States.

Impact on Floating Rate Loans

For borrowers with floating rate loans, the transition from LIBOR to SOFR has implications for their interest rates. Lenders often add a margin to the benchmark rate to determine the interest rate charged to borrowers. As LIBOR is phased out, lenders will need to transition to using SOFR as the new benchmark rate. This shift may lead to changes in the interest rates on existing floating rate loans, and borrowers should be prepared for potential adjustments in their loan terms.


Understanding the transition from LIBOR to SOFR is crucial for borrowers with floating rate loans. As the financial industry adopts SOFR as the new benchmark rate, borrowers may experience changes in their loan terms and interest rates. It is essential for borrowers to stay informed about this transition, communicate with their lenders, and be prepared for potential adjustments in their floating rate loan agreements. By staying proactive and knowledgeable, borrowers can effectively navigate the impact of this transition and make informed financial decisions.


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