August 1, 2023

Legal Status of Promoters under Companies Act, 2013 Corporate Law


In the realm of corporate law, understanding the legal status of promoters is crucial. Promoters play a significant role in the establishment and functioning of a company. They are the individuals who conceive the idea of forming a company and take the necessary steps to bring it into existence. Under the Companies Act, 2013, the legal framework governing companies in India, the role and responsibilities of promoters are well-defined. In this article, we will delve into the legal status of promoters under the Companies Act, 2013, and explore their rights, obligations, and potential liabilities.

The Definition of Promoters

Under the Companies Act, 2013, promoters are defined as individuals who are involved in the formation of a company or who have been named as such in the company's prospectus or offering document. They may include founders, initial subscribers to the memorandum of association, or any other person who has been instrumental in the promotion of the company.

Rights of Promoters

Promoters enjoy certain rights that come with their role in the company's formation and promotion. These rights include:

1. Right to Appoint Directors: Promoters have the authority to appoint the initial board of directors of the company. This allows them to shape the strategic direction of the company from its inception.

2. Right to Allocate Shares: Promoters have the power to allocate shares among themselves and other initial shareholders. This enables them to maintain control over the company's ownership structure.

3. Right to Enter into Contracts: Promoters have the right to enter into contracts on behalf of the company during its formation stage. However, it is important to note that such contracts must be disclosed to the board of directors and ratified by them after the company is incorporated.

4. Right to Receive Compensation: Promoters are entitled to receive compensation for the services rendered during the formation of the company. The nature and extent of this compensation are typically determined by the board of directors or the shareholders.

Obligations of Promoters

While promoters have certain rights, they also have several obligations that must be fulfilled. These obligations include:

1. Fiduciary Duty: Promoters owe a fiduciary duty to the company and its shareholders. They are required to act in the best interests of the company, exercise due care, and avoid any conflicts of interest.

2. Full Disclosure: Promoters are obligated to provide full and accurate disclosure of all material facts relating to the company. This includes disclosing their interests, any contracts entered into, and any benefits they may receive from the company.

3. Compliance with Regulations: Promoters must ensure compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and statutory requirements during the formation and promotion of the company. This includes obtaining necessary approvals, licenses, and permits.

4. Duty of Skill and Diligence: Promoters are expected to exercise reasonable skill, care, and diligence in carrying out their responsibilities. They must possess the necessary expertise or engage professionals to ensure the smooth functioning of the company's formation process.

Legal Liabilities of Promoters

Promoters can potentially incur legal liabilities if they fail to fulfill their obligations or engage in any wrongful conduct. Some of the legal liabilities that promoters may face include:

1. Civil Liabilities: Promoters may be held personally liable for any misrepresentations made in the company's prospectus or offering document. If such misrepresentations result in financial loss to the investors, they can bring a civil lawsuit against the promoters seeking damages.

2. Criminal Liabilities: Promoters can also face criminal liabilities for fraudulent activities or wilful misstatements made during the formation or promotion of the company. The Companies Act, 2013, contains provisions for the prosecution of promoters involved in fraudulent practices.

3. Regulatory Liabilities: Promoters are subject to the regulatory oversight of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and other regulatory bodies. Non-compliance with regulatory requirements can lead to penalties, fines, or other enforcement actions against the promoters.

4. Liability for Company Debts: In certain circumstances, promoters may be held personally liable for the debts and obligations of the company if they have provided personal guarantees or engaged in fraudulent conduct that led to the company's insolvency.


Understanding the legal status of promoters under the Companies Act, 2013, is crucial for anyone involved in company formation and promotion. Promoters have both rights and obligations that must be carefully navigated to ensure compliance with the law and to protect the interests of the company and its shareholders. By fulfilling their responsibilities and acting in the best interests of the company, promoters can play a pivotal role in the success and growth of the organization.


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